From Romanticism to Modernity

Industrial rev­o­lu­tion brought huge changes, artists re­sponded to that (samuel palmer recre­ates a vi­sion of England be­fore the in­dus­trial age)

London’s pop­u­la­tion dou­bles in 100 years 1801 to 1911 People were forced to move to the cities, poverty grew

Watercolour showing a brick wall covered in layers of blue, red, black, and white advertising posters. St. Paul's cathedral is seen in the background. Advertising cul­ture takes hold of the city. Competition in the city forced busi­nesses to ad­ver­tise. When there is no com­pe­ti­tion, you don’t need to ad­ver­tise. Posters beome a part of ur­ban land­scape. (painting on the sides of build­ings, clapham)

Invention of lith­o­g­ra­phy al­lows for the mass re­pro­duc­tion of art­work for the first time in his­tory.

Arts and Craft Movement

Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

Movement to re­vive ital­ian art be­fore Raphael, saw every­thing about the past as su­pe­rior

Factories come un­der crit­i­cism for the way they change so­ci­ety (engels, marx) goods pro­duced by fac­to­ries per­cieved to be ugly, devoid of beauty”

More on William Morris

gothic ar­chi­tec­ture well-de­signed goods would im­prove so­ci­ety ma­te­r­ial en­vi­ron­ment af­fects moral fi­bre of so­ci­ety ideal is happy work­ers mak­ing beau­ti­ful ob­jects past was bet­ter

william mor­ris wall­pa­per

the red house

os­car wilde com­pares art to flower, art is use­less

Walter Crane

mid­dle age

christo­pher dresser in­dus­trial de­sign

Owen Jones: The Grammar of Ornament

the dec­o­ra­tive arts arise from ar­chi­tec­ture es­tab­lished good taste

A page from "The Grammar of Ornament", showing 10 panels of different geometric patterns in bright colours.

ob­jec­tive stan­dard of beauty

arabesque, curved, na­ture-re­lated forms

ab­strac­tion, sci­en­tific de­con­struc­tion of botanic draw­ings

savage tribes’ (reading)

The prin­ci­ples dis­cov­er­able in the works of the past be­long to us; not so the re­sults. It is tak­ing the end for the means. (Propo­si­tion 36)

All propo­si­tions

The Art Nouveau

1880s to WW1

aubrey beard­s­ley or­ganic forms, styl­ized de­pic­tions of na­ture paris metro gus­tav klimt looks back at greek, byzan­tine, egypt­ian styles fla­neur in­ven­tion of hot air bal­loons, ex­po­si­tion uni­verselle de paris

Adolf Loos: Ornament and Crime, 1908

Argues that or­na­men­ta­tion slows down progress