All in all, the cre­ative act is not per­formed by the artist alone.. the spec­ta­tor brings the work in con­tact with the ex­ter­nal world by de­ci­pher­ing and in­ter­pret­ing its in­ner qual­i­fi­ca­tions and thus adds his con­tri­bu­tion to the cre­ative act.

Marcel Duchamp 1957

Videoplace works, 1970 - Myron Krueger

Who’s in con­trol? In some ex­am­ples, there’s just one per­son con­trol­ling it, in oth­ers mul­ti­ple peo­ple have dif­fer­ent de­grees of con­trol

Fish bowl ex­per­i­ment idea of tak­ing con­trol away from the hu­man user/​cre­ator

Osmose, 1995 - Char Davis Early VR stuff You nav­i­gate through vir­tual space sing breath­ing (speed) and bal­ance (direction)

Very ner­vous System , 1982 - 90 - David Rokeby

Igloo: Visitor (2010)

Interaction through a boat (not a mouse or a but­ton)

Sommerer + Mignonneau: Interactive Plant Growing (1992)

Touch plants to con­trol vir­tual plants

Julius von Bismarck: Image Fulgerator (2007-2011) Projeting text onto other peo­ple’s pho­tographs Ge­netic Moo: ANimacules (2008-2012): Animated crea­tures come up when you light the floor with a torch - mul­ti­ple peo­ple can con­trol it at the same time

Daily tous les jours: 21 Swings (2011-2014) Swings trig­ger sounds, col­lab­o­ra­tion, easy in­ter­ac­tion